Artificial Intelligence for Drug Development, Personalized Prescriptions, and Adverse Event Prediction


  • Mehrdad Farrokhi
  • Fatemeh Taheri
  • Amir Moeini
  • Masoud Farrokhi
  • Parisa Jafari Khouzani
  • Erfan Ghadirzadeh
  • Shabnam Varmazyari
  • Melina Ghaneiyan
  • Sohameh Mohebbi
  • Zahra Mogharari
  • Vida Rezaei
  • Hamed Ghorbani
  • Hani Ghayyem
  • Seyedhessamedin Miri
  • Sara Saeidi
  • Kimia Baniasad
  • Mahtab Mirbolouk
  • Nila Navaei
  • Diba Saeidi
  • Zahrasadat Rezaei
  • Paniz Sabeghi
  • Nikoo Emtiazi
  • Behzad Garousi


Artificial Intelligence , Drug Development, Personalized Prescriptions, Adverse Event Prediction


Artificial Intelligence (AI) has revolutionized drug development, personalized prescriptions, and adverse event prediction in the field of healthcare. Through advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques, AI enables pharmaceutical companies to expedite the drug discovery process, saving both time and resources. In drug development, AI algorithms analyze vast amounts of biological data to identify potential drug candidates with higher accuracy and efficiency than traditional methods. By predicting the molecular structure and behavior of compounds, AI can suggest promising avenues for drug synthesis and optimization. This has significantly accelerated the identification of new treatments for various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and rare genetic disorders. Moreover, AI plays a crucial role in personalized medicine by tailoring treatments to individual patients based on their genetic makeup, medical history, and lifestyle factors. By analyzing diverse datasets, including genomics, proteomics, and clinical records, AI algorithms can predict how patients will respond to specific drugs, allowing physicians to prescribe the most effective and safest treatments for each individual. This approach not only improves patient outcomes but also minimizes the risk of adverse drug reactions and side effects. Furthermore, AI facilitates the early detection and prediction of adverse events associated with pharmaceutical interventions. By continuously monitoring patient data, including vital signs, laboratory results, and electronic health records, AI algorithms can identify potential safety concerns before they escalate into serious complications. This proactive approach enables healthcare providers to intervene promptly, adjust treatment regimens, and mitigate risks, ultimately improving patient safety and reducing healthcare costs. In conclusion, AI holds tremendous potential to transform drug development, personalized prescriptions, and adverse event prediction, ushering in a new era of precision medicine and improved healthcare outcomes. As technology continues to advance, AI-driven innovations will play an increasingly vital role in shaping the future of medicine and pharmaceutical research.


Abavisani M, Khoshrou A, Sahebkar A. Artificial intelligence in drug discovery: A new frontier in the fight against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Drug Discov Today. 2024;29(3):103909.

Abdallah S, Sharifa M, MK IKA, Khawar MM, Sr., Shaikh U, Balabel KM, et al. The Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Optimizing Diagnosis and Treatment Plans for Rare Genetic Disorders. Cureus. 2023;15(10):e46860.

Abou Hajal A, Al Meslamani AZ. Insights into artificial intelligence utilisation in drug discovery. J Med Econ. 2024;27(1):304-8.

Agu PC, Obulose CN. Piquing artificial intelligence towards drug discovery: Tools, techniques, and applications. Drug Dev Res. 2024;85(2):e22159.

Aguilera-Puga MDC, Cancelarich NL, Marani MM, de la Fuente-Nunez C, Plisson F. Accelerating the Discovery and Design of Antimicrobial Peptides with Artificial Intelligence. Methods Mol Biol. 2024;2714:329-52.

Ahmed MI, Spooner B, Isherwood J, Lane M, Orrock E, Dennison A. A Systematic Review of the Barriers to the Implementation of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. Cureus. 2023;15(10):e46454.

Akinsulie OC, Idris I, Aliyu VA, Shahzad S, Banwo OG, Ogunleye SC, et al. The potential application of artificial intelligence in veterinary clinical practice and biomedical research. Front Vet Sci. 2024;11:1347550.

Al Kuwaiti A, Nazer K, Al-Reedy A, Al-Shehri S, Al-Muhanna A, Subbarayalu AV, et al. A Review of the Role of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. J Pers Med. 2023;13(6).

Al-Azzawi F, Mahmoud I, Haguinet F, Bate A, Sessa M. Developing an Artificial Intelligence-Guided Signal Detection in the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS): A Proof-of-Concept Study Using Galcanezumab and Simulated Data. Drug Saf. 2023;46(8):743-51.

Alam MR, Seo KJ, Abdul-Ghafar J, Yim K, Lee SH, Jang HJ, et al. Recent application of artificial intelligence on histopathologic image-based prediction of gene mutation in solid cancers. Brief Bioinform. 2023;24(3).

Aliper A, Kudrin R, Polykovskiy D, Kamya P, Tutubalina E, Chen S, et al. Prediction of Clinical Trials Outcomes Based on Target Choice and Clinical Trial Design with Multi-Modal Artificial Intelligence. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2023;114(5):972-80.

AlRyalat SA, Singh P, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Kahook MY. Artificial Intelligence and Glaucoma: Going Back to Basics. Clin Ophthalmol. 2023;17:1525-30.

Altara R, Basson CJ, Biondi-Zoccai G, Booz GW. Exploring the Promise and Challenges of Artificial Intelligence in Biomedical Research and Clinical Practice. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2024.

Amsterdam D. Perspective: Limiting Antimicrobial Resistance with Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning. BME Front. 2023;4:0033.

Arfi S, Srivastava N, Sharma N. Artificial Intelligence: An Emerging Intellectual Sword for Battling Carcinomas. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2023;24(14):1784-94.

Arigbede O, Amusa T, Buxbaum SG. Exploring the Use of Artificial Intelligence and Robotics in Prostate Cancer Management. Cureus. 2023;15(9):e46021.

Ashwin M, Alqahtani AS, Mubarakali A. Smart Artificial Intelligence techniques using embedded band for diagnosis and combating COVID-19. Microprocess Microsyst. 2023;98:104819.

Azamfirei R. Artificial Intelligence: The Next Blockbuster Drug in Critical Care? J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures). 2023;9(2):61-3.

Bacci MR, Minczuk CVB, Fonseca FLA. A systematic review of artificial intelligence algorithms for predicting acute kidney injury. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2023;27(20):9872-9.

Badini S, Regondi S, Pugliese R. Unleashing the Power of Artificial Intelligence in Materials Design. Materials (Basel). 2023;16(17).

Badrouchi S, Bacha MM, Ahmed A, Ben Abdallah T, Abderrahim E. Predicting long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation in the era of artificial intelligence. Sci Rep. 2023;13(1):21273.

Bailleux C, Gal J, Chamorey E, Mograbi B, Milano G. Artificial Intelligence and Anticancer Drug Development-Keep a Cool Head. Pharmaceutics. 2024;16(2).

Barrett JS, Oskoui SE, Russell S, Borens A. Digital Research Environment(DRE)-enabled Artificial Intelligence (AI) to facilitate early stage drug development. Front Pharmacol. 2023;14:1115356.

Battistelli M, Izzo A, D'Ercole M, D'Alessandris QG, Montano N. The role of artificial intelligence in the management of trigeminal neuralgia. Front Surg. 2023;10:1310414.

Beavers J, Schell RF, VanCleave H, Dillon RC, Simmons A, Chen H, et al. Evaluation of inpatient medication guidance from an artificial intelligence chatbot. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2023;80(24):1822-9.

Becker M, Cheng YT, Voigt A, Chenakkara A, He M, Lehmkuhl S, et al. Artificial intelligence-driven shimming for parallel high field nuclear magnetic resonance. Sci Rep. 2023;13(1):17983.

Berson ER, Aboian MS, Malhotra A, Payabvash S. Artificial Intelligence for Neuroimaging and Musculoskeletal Radiology: Overview of Current Commercial Algorithms. Semin Roentgenol. 2023;58(2):178-83.

Biehn SE, Goncalves LM, Lehmann J, Marty JD, Mueller C, Ramirez SA, et al. BioPrint meets the AI age: development of artificial intelligence-based ADMET models for the drug discovery platform SAFIRE. Future Med Chem. 2024.

Biswas AA, Dhondale MR, Agrawal AK, Serrano DR, Mishra B, Kumar D. Advancements in microneedle fabrication techniques: artificial intelligence assisted 3D-printing technology. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2024.

Bordukova M, Makarov N, Rodriguez-Esteban R, Schmich F, Menden MP. Generative artificial intelligence empowers digital twins in drug discovery and clinical trials. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2024;19(1):33-42.

Byun J, Tai J, Kim B, Kim J, Jung S, Lee J, et al. Identification of Hit Compounds Using Artificial Intelligence for the Management of Allergic Diseases. Int J Mol Sci. 2024;25(4).

Calzetta L, Pistocchini E, Chetta A, Rogliani P, Cazzola M. Experimental drugs in clinical trials for COPD: artificial intelligence via machine learning approach to predict the successful advance from early-stage development to approval. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2023;32(6):525-36.

Carrasco-Ribelles LA, Llanes-Jurado J, Gallego-Moll C, Cabrera-Bean M, Monteagudo-Zaragoza M, Violán C, et al. Prediction models using artificial intelligence and longitudinal data from electronic health records: a systematic methodological review. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2023;30(12):2072-82.

Cen LP, Ng TK, Ji J, Lin JW, Yao Y, Yang R, et al. Artificial Intelligence-based database for prediction of protein structure and their alterations in ocular diseases. Database (Oxford). 2023;2023.

Chakraborty C, Bhattacharya M, Lee SS. Artificial intelligence enabled ChatGPT and large language models in drug target discovery, drug discovery, and development. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2023;33:866-8.

Chakraborty S, Chopra H, Akash S, Chakraborty C, Dhama K. Artificial intelligence (AI) is paving the way for a critical role in drug discovery, drug design, and studying drug-drug interactions - correspondence. Int J Surg. 2023;109(10):3242-4.

Chalasani SH, Syed J, Ramesh M, Patil V, Pramod Kumar TM. Artificial intelligence in the field of pharmacy practice: A literature review. Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm. 2023;12:100346.

Chandrabhatla AS, Kuo EA, Sokolowski JD, Kellogg RT, Park M, Mastorakos P. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in the Diagnosis and Management of Stroke: A Narrative Review of United States Food and Drug Administration-Approved Technologies. J Clin Med. 2023;12(11).

Charan ES, Sharma A, Sandhu H, Garg P. FGFR1Pred: an artificial intelligence-based model for predicting fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 inhibitor. Mol Divers. 2023.

Charles S, Mahapatra RK. Artificial intelligence based de-novo design for novel Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin (PM) X inhibitors. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2023:1-16.

Chen X, Zhang J, Zhao Q, Ding L, Wu Z, Jia Z, et al. Application and teaching of computer molecular simulation embedded technology and artificial intelligence in drug research and development. Open Life Sci. 2023;18(1):20220675.

Cheng F, Wang F, Tang J, Zhou Y, Fu Z, Zhang P, et al. Artificial intelligence and open science in discovery of disease-modifying medicines for Alzheimer's disease. Cell Rep Med. 2024;5(2):101379.

Chhina A, Trehan K, Saini M, Thakur S, Kaur M, Shahtaghi NR, et al. Revolutionizing Pharmaceutical Industry: The Radical Impact of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Curr Pharm Des. 2023;29(21):1645-58.

Chinnadurai S, Mahadevan S, Navaneethakrishnan B, Mamadapur M. Decoding Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Rheumatology. Cureus. 2023;15(9):e46164.

Chou WC, Chen Q, Yuan L, Cheng YH, He C, Monteiro-Riviere NA, et al. An artificial intelligence-assisted physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model to predict nanoparticle delivery to tumors in mice. J Control Release. 2023;361:53-63.

Cinalioglu K, Elbaz S, Sekhon K, Su CL, Rej S, Sekhon H. Exploring Differential Perceptions of Artificial Intelligence in Health Care Among Younger Versus Older Canadians: Results From the 2021 Canadian Digital Health Survey. J Med Internet Res. 2023;25:e38169.

Clark P, Kim J, Aphinyanaphongs Y. Marketing and US Food and Drug Administration Clearance of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Enabled Software in and as Medical Devices: A Systematic Review. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(7):e2321792.

Copeland-Halperin LR, O'Brien L, Copeland M. Evaluation of Artificial Intelligence-generated Responses to Common Plastic Surgery Questions. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2023;11(8):e5226.

Corrales-Hernández MG, Villarroel-Hagemann SK, Mendoza-Rodelo IE, Palacios-Sánchez L, Gaviria-Carrillo M, Buitrago-Ricaurte N, et al. Development of Antiepileptic Drugs throughout History: From Serendipity to Artificial Intelligence. Biomedicines. 2023;11(6).

Corsello A, Santangelo A. May Artificial Intelligence Influence Future Pediatric Research?-The Case of ChatGPT. Children (Basel). 2023;10(4).

Currie GM. The emerging role of artificial intelligence and digital twins in pre-clinical molecular imaging. Nucl Med Biol. 2023;120-121:108337.

Czub N, Szlęk J, Pacławski A, Klimończyk K, Puccetti M, Mendyk A. Artificial Intelligence-Based Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Model for Predicting Human Intestinal Absorption of Compounds with Serotonergic Activity. Mol Pharm. 2023;20(5):2545-55.

Danishuddin, Jamal MS, Song KS, Lee KW, Kim JJ, Park YM. Revolutionizing Drug Targeting Strategies: Integrating Artificial Intelligence and Structure-Based Methods in PROTAC Development. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2023;16(12).

Das B, Mathew AT, Baidya ATK, Devi B, Salmon RR, Kumar R. Artificial intelligence assisted identification of potential tau aggregation inhibitors: ligand- and structure-based virtual screening, in silico ADME, and molecular dynamics study. Mol Divers. 2023.

Das K, Paltani M, Tripathi PK, Kumar R, Verma S, Kumar S, et al. Current implications and challenges of artificial intelligence technologies in therapeutic intervention of colorectal cancer. Explor Target Antitumor Ther. 2023;4(6):1286-300.

Dawoud MHS, Mannaa IS, Abdel-Daim A, Sweed NM. Integrating Artificial Intelligence with Quality by Design in the Formulation of Lecithin/Chitosan Nanoparticles of a Poorly Water-Soluble Drug. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2023;24(6):169.

Deng S, Li C, Cao J, Cui Z, Du J, Fu Z, et al. Organ-on-a-chip meets artificial intelligence in drug evaluation. Theranostics. 2023;13(13):4526-58.

Deo N, Anjankar A. Artificial Intelligence With Robotics in Healthcare: A Narrative Review of Its Viability in India. Cureus. 2023;15(5):e39416.

Destere A, Marchello G, Merino D, Othman NB, Gérard AO, Lavrut T, et al. An artificial intelligence algorithm for co-clustering to help in pharmacovigilance before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2024.

Destere A, Teisseyre M, Merino D, Cremoni M, Gérard AO, Crepin T, et al. Optimization of Rituximab Therapy in Adult Patients With PLA2R1-Associated Membranous Nephropathy With Artificial Intelligence. Kidney Int Rep. 2024;9(1):134-44.

Dhankar S, Mujwar S, Garg N, Chauhan S, Sharma P, Kumar Sharma S, et al. Artificial Intelligence in The Management of Neurodegenerative Disorders. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2023.

Diaz-Del-Pino S, Trelles-Martinez R, González-Fernández FA, Guil N. Artificial intelligence to assist specialists in the detection of haematological diseases. Heliyon. 2023;9(5):e15940.

Djoumbou-Feunang Y, Wilmot J, Kinney J, Chanda P, Yu P, Sader A, et al. Cheminformatics and artificial intelligence for accelerating agrochemical discovery. Front Chem. 2023;11:1292027.

Doherty T, Yao Z, Khleifat AAL, Tantiangco H, Tamburin S, Albertyn C, et al. Artificial intelligence for dementia drug discovery and trials optimization. Alzheimers Dement. 2023;19(12):5922-33.

Dong J, Wu Z, Xu H, Ouyang D. FormulationAI: a novel web-based platform for drug formulation design driven by artificial intelligence. Brief Bioinform. 2023;25(1).

Dubey A, Tiwari A. Artificial intelligence and remote patient monitoring in US healthcare market: a literature review. J Mark Access Health Policy. 2023;11(1):2205618.

Dudas B, Miteva MA. Computational and artificial intelligence-based approaches for drug metabolism and transport prediction. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2024;45(1):39-55.

Elmahdy M, Sebro R. A snapshot of artificial intelligence research 2019-2021: is it replacing or assisting physicians? J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2023;30(9):1552-7.

Ezell JM, Ajayi BP, Parikh T, Miller K, Rains A, Scales D. Drug Use and Artificial Intelligence: Weighing Concerns and Possibilities for Prevention. Am J Prev Med. 2024;66(3):568-72.

Fan YL, Hsu FR, Wang Y, Liao LD. Unlocking the Potential of Zebrafish Research with Artificial Intelligence: Advancements in Tracking, Processing, and Visualization. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2023;61(11):2797-814.

Floresta G, Zagni C, Patamia V, Rescifina A. How can artificial intelligence be utilized for de novo drug design against COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)? Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2023;18(10):1061-4.

Gagare R, Sharma A, Garg P. AndroPred: an artificial intelligence-based model for predicting androgen receptor inhibitors. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2023:1-9.

Gallo C. Artificial Intelligence for Personalized Genetics and New Drug Development: Benefits and Cautions. Bioengineering (Basel). 2023;10(5).

Gangwal A, Ansari A, Ahmad I, Azad AK, Kumarasamy V, Subramaniyan V, et al. Generative artificial intelligence in drug discovery: basic framework, recent advances, challenges, and opportunities. Front Pharmacol. 2024;15:1331062.

Gao Z, Gorenflo M, Kaelber DC, Monnier VM, Xu R. Drug repurposing for reducing the risk of cataract extraction in patients with diabetes mellitus: integration of artificial intelligence-based drug prediction and clinical corroboration. Front Pharmacol. 2023;14:1181711.

Garcia-Garcia HM, Waksman R, Melaku GD, Garg M, Beyene S, Wlodarczak A, et al. Temporal Changes in Coronary Plaque as Assessed by an Artificial Intelligence Based Optical Coherence Tomography: From the First-in-Human Trial on DREAMS 3G Scaffold. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2023.

Garg S, Kapoor MC. Role of artificial intelligence in perioperative monitoring in anaesthesia. Indian J Anaesth. 2024;68(1):87-92.

Gottlieb S, Silvis L. Regulators Face Novel Challenges as Artificial Intelligence Tools Enter Medical Practice. JAMA Health Forum. 2023;4(6):e232300.

Greenberg ZF, Graim KS, He M. Towards artificial intelligence-enabled extracellular vesicle precision drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2023;199:114974.

Gu S, Liu H, Liu L, Hou T, Kang Y. Artificial intelligence methods in kinase target profiling: Advances and challenges. Drug Discov Today. 2023;28(11):103796.

Gulumbe BH, Yusuf ZM, Hashim AM. Harnessing artificial intelligence in the post-COVID-19 era: A global health imperative. Trop Doct. 2023;53(4):414-5.

Gunathilaka NJ, Gooden TE, Cooper J, Flanagan S, Marshall T, Haroon S, et al. Perceptions on artificial intelligence-based decision-making for coexisting multiple long-term health conditions: protocol for a qualitative study with patients and healthcare professionals. BMJ Open. 2024;14(2):e077156.

Gupta R, Kumari S, Senapati A, Ambasta RK, Kumar P. New era of artificial intelligence and machine learning-based detection, diagnosis, and therapeutics in Parkinson's disease. Ageing Res Rev. 2023;90:102013.

Gurwitz D, Shomron N. Artificial intelligence utility for drug development: ChatGPT and beyond. Drug Dev Res. 2024;85(2):e22121.

Halomoan Harahap T, Mansouri S, Salim Abdullah O, Uinarni H, Askar S, Jabbar TL, et al. An artificial intelligence approach to predict infants' health status at birth. Int J Med Inform. 2024;183:105338.

Hamedani Z, Moradi M, Kalroozi F, Manafi Anari A, Jalalifar E, Ansari A, et al. Evaluation of acceptance, attitude, and knowledge towards artificial intelligence and its application from the point of view of physicians and nurses: A provincial survey study in Iran: A cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study. Health Sci Rep. 2023;6(9):e1543.

Han R, Yoon H, Kim G, Lee H, Lee Y. Revolutionizing Medicinal Chemistry: The Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Early Drug Discovery. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2023;16(9).

Han S, Lee JE, Kang S, So M, Jin H, Lee JH, et al. Standigm ASK™: knowledge graph and artificial intelligence platform applied to target discovery in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Brief Bioinform. 2024;25(2).

Handa T. The potential role of artificial intelligence in the clinical practice of interstitial lung disease. Respir Investig. 2023;61(6):702-10.

Hasselgren C, Oprea TI. Artificial Intelligence for Drug Discovery: Are We There Yet? Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2024;64:527-50.

He B, Guo J, Tong HHY, To WM. Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery: A Bibliometric Analysis and Literature Review. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2024.

He D, Wang R, Xu Z, Wang J, Song P, Wang H, et al. The use of artificial intelligence in the treatment of rare diseases: A scoping review. Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2024;13(1):12-22.

Higgins DC, Johner C. Validation of Artificial Intelligence Containing Products Across the Regulated Healthcare Industries. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2023;57(4):797-809.

Hoffman KL. Artificial intelligence pushes the boundaries of behavioral analysis in drug discovery: a revolution from the deep. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2024;19(1):1-3.

Holla S, Zamil DH, Paidisetty PS, Wang LK, Katta R. Using Artificial Intelligence to Assess the Teratogenic Risk of Vitamin A Supplements. Cureus. 2023;15(9):e45931.

Hu Y, Ren Q, Liu X, Gao L, Xiao L, Yu W. In Silico Prediction of Human Organ Toxicity via Artificial Intelligence Methods. Chem Res Toxicol. 2023;36(7):1044-54.

Huang SH, Peng BR, Lin CS, Tsai HC, Pan LF, Pan LK. Potential risk quantification from multiple biological factors via the inverse problem algorithm as an artificial intelligence tool in clinical diagnosis. Technol Health Care. 2023;31(S1):69-79.

Huang X, Zhou S, Ma X, Jiang S, Xu Y, You Y, et al. Effectiveness of an artificial intelligence clinical assistant decision support system to improve the incidence of hospital-associated venous thromboembolism: a prospective, randomised controlled study. BMJ Open Qual. 2023;12(4).

Ille AM, Markosian C, Burley SK, Mathews MB, Pasqualini R, Arap W. Generative artificial intelligence performs rudimentary structural biology modelling. bioRxiv. 2024.

Imaging CMM. Retracted: Construction of Stomach Cancer Lesion Detection Combined with Drug Therapy Based on Artificial Intelligence. Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2023;2023:9872069.

Iqbal J, Cortés Jaimes DC, Makineni P, Subramani S, Hemaida S, Thugu TR, et al. Reimagining Healthcare: Unleashing the Power of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. Cureus. 2023;15(9):e44658.

Ita K, Roshanaei S. Artificial intelligence for skin permeability prediction: deep learning. J Drug Target. 2024;32(3):334-46.

Karmalkar P, Gurulingappa H, Spies E, Flynn JA. Artificial intelligence-driven approach for patient-focused drug development. Front Artif Intell. 2023;6:1237124.

Kate A, Seth E, Singh A, Chakole CM, Chauhan MK, Singh RK, et al. Correction: Artificial Intelligence for Computer-Aided Drug Discovery. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2023;73(7):e2.

Kate A, Seth E, Singh A, Chakole CM, Chauhan MK, Singh RK, et al. Artificial Intelligence for Computer-Aided Drug Discovery. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2023;73(7):369-77.

Katwaroo AR, Adesh VS, Lowtan A, Umakanthan S. The diagnostic, therapeutic, and ethical impact of artificial intelligence in modern medicine. Postgrad Med J. 2023.

Kim DN, McNaughton AD, Kumar N. Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Expedite Antibody Design and Enhance Antibody-Antigen Interactions. Bioengineering (Basel). 2024;11(2).

Kim J, Kim H, Yoon YS, Kim CW, Hong SM, Kim S, et al. Investigation of artificial intelligence integrated fluorescence endoscopy image analysis with indocyanine green for interpretation of precancerous lesions in colon cancer. PLoS One. 2023;18(5):e0286189.

Kiryu Y. [Development of a Medical Big Data Analysis System Utilizing Artificial Intelligence Analytics in Clinical Pharmacy]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2023;143(6):501-5.

Kulczyk AW. Artificial intelligence and the analysis of cryo-EM data provide structural insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying LN-lamininopathies. Sci Rep. 2023;13(1):17825.

Kumar K, Gandhi H. Artificial Intelligence for the Management of Breast Cancer: An Overview. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2023.

La Paglia L, Vazzana M, Mauro M, Urso A, Arizza V, Vizzini A. Bioactive Molecules from the Innate Immunity of Ascidians and Innovative Methods of Drug Discovery: A Computational Approach Based on Artificial Intelligence. Mar Drugs. 2023;22(1).

Lai B, Fu J, Zhang Q, Deng N, Jiang Q, Peng J. Artificial intelligence in cancer pathology: Challenge to meet increasing demands of precision medicine. Int J Oncol. 2023;63(3).

Langevin M, Grebner C, Güssregen S, Sauer S, Li Y, Matter H, et al. Impact of Applicability Domains to Generative Artificial Intelligence. ACS Omega. 2023;8(25):23148-67.

Łapińska N, Pacławski A, Szlęk J, Mendyk A. SerotoninAI: Serotonergic System Focused, Artificial Intelligence-Based Application for Drug Discovery. J Chem Inf Model. 2024.

Le Tilly O, Woillard JB. Evaluating Use of Artificial Intelligence for Drug Exposure and Effect Prediction. Kidney Int Rep. 2024;9(1):1-3.

Ledziński Ł, Grześk G. Artificial Intelligence Technologies in Cardiology. J Cardiovasc Dev Dis. 2023;10(5).

Lee H. Engineering In vitro Models: Bioprinting of Organoids with Artificial Intelligence. Cyborg Bionic Syst. 2023;4:0018.

Lennard S, Newman R, McLean B, Jory C, Cox D, Young C, et al. Improving nocturnal event monitoring in people with intellectual disability in community using an artificial intelligence camera. Epilepsy Behav Rep. 2023;22:100603.

Li C, Ye G, Jiang Y, Wang Z, Yu H, Yang M. Artificial Intelligence in battling infectious diseases: A transformative role. J Med Virol. 2024;96(1):e29355.

Li M, Zhang J. A focus on harnessing big data and artificial intelligence: revolutionizing drug discovery from traditional Chinese medicine sources. Chem Sci. 2023;14(39):10628-30.

Li P, Wang W, Wang S, Cao G, Pan T, Huang Y, et al. PTPRC promoted CD8+ T cell mediated tumor immunity and drug sensitivity in breast cancer: based on pan-cancer analysis and artificial intelligence modeling of immunogenic cell death-based drug sensitivity stratification. Front Immunol. 2023;14:1145481.

Li T, Roberts R, Liu Z, Tong W. TransOrGAN: An Artificial Intelligence Mapping of Rat Transcriptomic Profiles between Organs, Ages, and Sexes. Chem Res Toxicol. 2023;36(6):916-25.

Li W, Zheng N, Zhou Q, Alqahtani MS, Elkamchouchi DH, Zhao H, et al. A state-of-the-art analysis of pharmacological delivery and artificial intelligence techniques for inner ear disease treatment. Environ Res. 2023;236(Pt 1):116457.

Liang NL, Chung TK, Vorp DA. The regulatory environment for artificial intelligence-enabled devices in the United States. Semin Vasc Surg. 2023;36(3):435-9.

Lin CX, Guan Y, Li HD. Artificial intelligence approaches for molecular representation in drug response prediction. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2024;84:102747.

Lin G, Wang X, Ye H, Cao W. Radiomic Models Predict Tumor Microenvironment Using Artificial Intelligence-the Novel Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Immune Microenvironment. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2023;22:15330338231218227.

Liu CM, Chen WS, Chang SL, Hsieh YC, Hsu YH, Chang HX, et al. Use of artificial intelligence and I-Score for prediction of recurrence before catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol. 2024:131851.

Liu GY, Yu D, Fan MM, Zhang X, Jin ZY, Tang C, et al. Antimicrobial resistance crisis: could artificial intelligence be the solution? Mil Med Res. 2024;11(1):7.

Liu HM, Rayner A, Mendelsohn AR, Shneyderman A, Chen M, Pun FW. Applying Artificial Intelligence to Identify Common Targets for Treatment of Asthma, Eczema, and Food Allergy. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2024;185(2):99-110.

Liu X, Barreto EF, Dong Y, Liu C, Gao X, Tootooni MS, et al. Discrepancy between perceptions and acceptance of clinical decision support Systems: implementation of artificial intelligence for vancomycin dosing. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2023;23(1):157.

Lopes S, Rocha G, Guimarães-Pereira L. Artificial intelligence and its clinical application in Anesthesiology: a systematic review. J Clin Monit Comput. 2023.

Lu F, Meng Y, Song X, Li X, Liu Z, Gu C, et al. Artificial Intelligence in Liver Diseases: Recent Advances. Adv Ther. 2024;41(3):967-90.

Lv Q, Zhou F, Liu X, Zhi L. Artificial intelligence in small molecule drug discovery from 2018 to 2023: Does it really work? Bioorg Chem. 2023;141:106894.

MacMath D, Chen M, Khoury P. Artificial Intelligence: Exploring the Future of Innovation in Allergy Immunology. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2023;23(6):351-62.

Malani M, Hiremath MS, Sharma S, Jhunjhunwala M, Gayen S, Hota C, et al. Interaction of systemic drugs causing ocular toxicity with organic cation transporter: an artificial intelligence prediction. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2023:1-12.

Malwe AS, Sharma VK. Application of artificial intelligence approaches to predict the metabolism of xenobiotic molecules by human gut microbiome. Front Microbiol. 2023;14:1254073.

Maniaci A, Saibene AM, Calvo-Henriquez C, Vaira L, Radulesco T, Michel J, et al. Is generative pre-trained transformer artificial intelligence (Chat-GPT) a reliable tool for guidelines synthesis? A preliminary evaluation for biologic CRSwNP therapy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2024.

Marzi SJ, Schilder BM, Nott A, Frigerio CS, Willaime-Morawek S, Bucholc M, et al. Artificial intelligence for neurodegenerative experimental models. Alzheimers Dement. 2023;19(12):5970-87.

Mashraqi AM, Allehyani B. Current trends on the application of artificial intelligence in medical sciences. Bioinformation. 2022;18(11):1050-61.

Mayer B, Kringel D, Lötsch J. Artificial intelligence and machine learning in clinical pharmacological research. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2024;17(1):79-91.

McGale JP, Howell HJ, Beddok A, Tordjman M, Sun R, Chen D, et al. Integrating Artificial Intelligence and PET Imaging for Drug Discovery: A Paradigm Shift in Immunotherapy. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2024;17(2).

Menke J, Homberg S, Koch O. Introduction to artificial intelligence and deep learning using interactive electronic programming notebooks. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 2023;356(7):e2200628.

Moingeon P. Artificial intelligence-driven drug development against autoimmune diseases. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2023;44(7):411-24.

Molyneaux K, Laggner C, Vincent J, Brady-Kalnay S. Small molecule antagonists of PTPmu identified by artificial intelligence-based computational screening block glioma cell migration and growth. PLoS One. 2023;18(7):e0288980.

Montastruc F, Storck W, de Canecaude C, Victor L, Li J, Cesbron C, et al. Will artificial intelligence chatbots replace clinical pharmacologists? An exploratory study in clinical practice. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2023;79(10):1375-84.

Moreira-Filho JT, Neves BJ, Cajas RA, Moraes J, Andrade CH. Artificial intelligence-guided approach for efficient virtual screening of hits against Schistosoma mansoni. Future Med Chem. 2023;15(22):2033-50.

Morishita EC, Nakamura S. Recent applications of artificial intelligence in RNA-targeted small molecule drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2024:1-17.

Moskal N, McQuibban GA. From jeopardy champion to drug discovery; semantic similarity artificial intelligence. Autophagy. 2023:1-3.

Mosleh R, Jarrar Q, Jarrar Y, Tazkarji M, Hawash M. Medicine and Pharmacy Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice regarding Artificial Intelligence Programs: Jordan and West Bank of Palestine. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2023;14:1391-400.

Mozafari N, Mozafari N, Dehshahri A, Azadi A. Knowledge Gaps in Generating Cell-Based Drug Delivery Systems and a Possible Meeting with Artificial Intelligence. Mol Pharm. 2023;20(8):3757-78.

Muehlematter UJ, Bluethgen C, Vokinger KN. FDA-cleared artificial intelligence and machine learning-based medical devices and their 510(k) predicate networks. Lancet Digit Health. 2023;5(9):e618-e26.

Mullowney MW, Duncan KR, Elsayed SS, Garg N, van der Hooft JJJ, Martin NI, et al. Artificial intelligence for natural product drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2023;22(11):895-916.

Mumtaz H, Saqib M, Jabeen S, Muneeb M, Mughal W, Sohail H, et al. Exploring alternative approaches to precision medicine through genomics and artificial intelligence - a systematic review. Front Med (Lausanne). 2023;10:1227168.

Nagra NS, van der Veken L, Stanzl E, Champagne D, Devereson A, Macak M. The company landscape for artificial intelligence in large-molecule drug discovery. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2023;22(12):949-50.

Naik K, Goyal RK, Foschini L, Chak CW, Thielscher C, Zhu H, et al. Current Status and Future Directions: The Application of Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning for Precision Medicine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2023.

Naik NB, Mathew PJ, Kundra P. Scope of artificial intelligence in airway management. Indian J Anaesth. 2024;68(1):105-10.

Napolitano G, Has C, Schwerk A, Yuan JH, Ullrich C. Potential of Artificial Intelligence to Accelerate Drug Development for Rare Diseases. Pharmaceut Med. 2024.

Naveed M, Ain NU, Aziz T, Javed K, Shabbir MA, Alharbi M, et al. Artificial Intelligence Assisted Pharmacophore Design for Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive Leukemia with Gamma-Tocotrienol: A Toxicity Comparison Approach with Asciminib. Biomedicines. 2023;11(4).

Negut I, Bita B. Exploring the Potential of Artificial Intelligence for Hydrogel Development-A Short Review. Gels. 2023;9(11).

Newby D, Orgeta V, Marshall CR, Lourida I, Albertyn CP, Tamburin S, et al. Artificial intelligence for dementia prevention. Alzheimers Dement. 2023;19(12):5952-69.

Nguyen ATN, Nguyen DTN, Koh HY, Toskov J, MacLean W, Xu A, et al. The application of artificial intelligence to accelerate G protein-coupled receptor drug discovery. Br J Pharmacol. 2023.

Nguyen MH, Tran ND, Le NQK. Big Data and Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery for Gastric Cancer: Current Applications and Future Perspectives. Curr Med Chem. 2023.

Noor J, Chaudhry A, Batool S. Microfluidic Technology, Artificial Intelligence, and Biosensors As Advanced Technologies in Cancer Screening: A Review Article. Cureus. 2023;15(5):e39634.

Noorain, Srivastava V, Parveen B, Parveen R. Artificial Intelligence in Drug Formulation and Development: Applications and Future Prospects. Curr Drug Metab. 2023;24(9):622-34.

Pal S, Bhattacharya M, Islam MA, Chakraborty C. ChatGPT or LLM in next-generation drug discovery and development: pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies can make use of the artificial intelligence-based device for a faster way of drug discovery and development. Int J Surg. 2023;109(12):4382-4.

Pandey P, MacKerell AD, Jr. Combining SILCS and Artificial Intelligence for High-Throughput Prediction of the Passive Permeability of Drug Molecules. J Chem Inf Model. 2023;63(18):5903-15.

Pang J, Xiu W, Ma X. Application of Artificial Intelligence in the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prognostic Evaluation of Mediastinal Malignant Tumors. J Clin Med. 2023;12(8).

Parums DV. Editorial: Infectious Disease Surveillance Using Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its Role in Epidemic and Pandemic Preparedness. Med Sci Monit. 2023;29:e941209.

Parvatikar PP, Patil S, Khaparkhuntikar K, Patil S, Singh PK, Sahana R, et al. Artificial intelligence: Machine learning approach for screening large database and drug discovery. Antiviral Res. 2023;220:105740.

Pereira TO, Abbasi M, Oliveira RI, Guedes RA, Salvador JAR, Arrais JP. Artificial intelligence for prediction of biological activities and generation of molecular hits using stereochemical information. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2023;37(12):791-806.

Poh SSJ, Sia JT, Yip MYT, Tsai ASH, Lee SY, Tan GSW, et al. Artificial Intelligence, Digital Imaging, and Robotics Technologies for Surgical Vitreoretinal Diseases. Ophthalmol Retina. 2024.

Popescu Patoni SI, Muşat AAM, Patoni C, Popescu MN, Munteanu M, Costache IB, et al. Artificial intelligence in ophthalmology. Rom J Ophthalmol. 2023;67(3):207-13.

Qian H, Xiao Z, Su L, Yang Y, Tian X, Wang X. Prediction of Anti-rheumatoid Arthritis Natural Products of Xanthocerais Lignum Based on LC-MS and Artificial Intelligence. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2024.

Qiu Y, Cheng F. Artificial intelligence for drug discovery and development in Alzheimer's disease. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2024;85:102776.

Qiu Y, Wei GW. Artificial intelligence-aided protein engineering: from topological data analysis to deep protein language models. Brief Bioinform. 2023;24(5).

Qiu Y, Wei GW. Artificial intelligence-aided protein engineering: from topological data analysis to deep protein language models. ArXiv. 2023.

Rahman MA, Victoros E, Ernest J, Davis R, Shanjana Y, Islam MR. Impact of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology in Healthcare Sector: A Critical Evaluation of Both Sides of the Coin. Clin Pathol. 2024;17:2632010x241226887.

Rai A, Shah K, Dewangan HK. Review on the Artificial Intelligence-based Nanorobotics Targeted Drug Delivery System for Brain-specific Targeting. Curr Pharm Des. 2023;29(44):3519-31.

Rao M, McDuffie E, Sachs C. Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning-Driven Small Molecule Repurposing via Off-Target Prediction and Transcriptomics. Toxics. 2023;11(10).

Ratziu V, Hompesch M, Petitjean M, Serdjebi C, Iyer JS, Parwani AV, et al. Artificial intelligence-assisted digital pathology for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: current status and future directions. J Hepatol. 2024;80(2):335-51.

Roggia M, Natale B, Amendola G, Di Maro S, Cosconati S. Streamlining Large Chemical Library Docking with Artificial Intelligence: the PyRMD2Dock Approach. J Chem Inf Model. 2023.

Roosan D, Padua P, Khan R, Khan H, Verzosa C, Wu Y. Effectiveness of ChatGPT in clinical pharmacy and the role of artificial intelligence in medication therapy management. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2023.

Rudrapal M, Kirboga KK, Abdalla M, Maji S. Explainable artificial intelligence-assisted virtual screening and bioinformatics approaches for effective bioactivity prediction of phenolic cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors using PubChem molecular fingerprints. Mol Divers. 2024.

Rudroff T. Artificial Intelligence's Transformative Role in Illuminating Brain Function in Long COVID Patients Using PET/FDG. Brain Sci. 2024;14(1).

Rustandi T, Prihandiwati E, Nugroho F, Hayati F, Afriani N, Alfian R, et al. Application of artificial intelligence in the development of Jamu "traditional Indonesian medicine" as a more effective drug. Front Artif Intell. 2023;6:1274975.

Ryan DK, Maclean RH, Balston A, Scourfield A, Shah AD, Ross J. Artificial intelligence and machine learning for clinical pharmacology. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2024;90(3):629-39.

Saadat A, Siddiqui T, Taseen S, Mughal S. Revolutionising Impacts of Artificial Intelligence on Health Care System and Its Related Medical In-Transparencies. Ann Biomed Eng. 2023.

Saeed U, Insaf RA, Piracha ZZ, Tariq MN, Sohail A, Abbasi UA, et al. Crisis averted: a world united against the menace of multiple drug-resistant superbugs -pioneering anti-AMR vaccines, RNA interference, nanomedicine, CRISPR-based antimicrobials, bacteriophage therapies, and clinical artificial intelligence strategies to safeguard global antimicrobial arsenal. Front Microbiol. 2023;14:1270018.

Saifi I, Bhat BA, Hamdani SS, Bhat UY, Lobato-Tapia CA, Mir MA, et al. Artificial intelligence and cheminformatics tools: a contribution to the drug development and chemical science. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2023:1-19.

Salongcay RP, Aquino LAC, Alog GP, Locaylocay KB, Saunar AV, Peto T, et al. Accuracy of Integrated Artificial Intelligence Grading Using Handheld Retinal Imaging in a Community Diabetic Eye Screening Program. Ophthalmol Sci. 2024;4(3):100457.

Samantasinghar A, Ahmed F, Rahim CSA, Kim KH, Kim S, Choi KH. Artificial intelligence-assisted repurposing of lubiprostone alleviates tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Transl Res. 2023;262:75-88.

Satturwar S, Parwani AV. Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis: Current State and Future Implications. Adv Anat Pathol. 2024;31(2):136-44.

Schöning V, Khurana A, Karolak A. Editorial: Spotlight on artificial intelligence in experimental pharmacology and drug discovery. Front Pharmacol. 2023;14:1261141.

Senthil Kumar K, Miskovic V, Blasiak A, Sundar R, Pedrocchi ALG, Pearson AT, et al. Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Oncology: From Data to Digital Pathology and Treatment. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2023;43:e390084.

Shafiq N, Jannat A, Munir H, Rashid M, Parveen S. Exploring the potential of FDA approved anti-diabetic drugs for repurposing against COVID-19: a core combination of multiple computational strategies and integrated artificial intelligence. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2023:1-21.

Shahin MH, Barth A, Podichetty JT, Liu Q, Goyal N, Jin JY, et al. Artificial Intelligence: From Buzzword to Useful Tool in Clinical Pharmacology. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2023.

Shanshan Z, Fanfei D, Xuan S, Huina L, Ye Z, Jiayu L, et al. Anoikis regulator GLI2 promotes NC cell immunity escape by TGF-β-mediated non-classic hedgehog signaling in colorectal cancer: based on artificial intelligence and big data analysis. Aging (Albany NY). 2023;15(24):14733-48.

Sharma R, Shrivastava S, Singh SK, Kumar A, Singh AK, Saxena S. Artificial intelligence-based model for predicting the minimum inhibitory concentration of antibacterial peptides against ESKAPEE pathogens. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform. 2023;Pp.

Sharma V, Singh A, Chauhan S, Sharma PK, Chaudhary S, Sharma A, et al. Role of Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery and Target Identification in Cancer. Curr Drug Deliv. 2023.

Shelke YP, Badge AK, Bankar NJ. Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Microbial Diagnosis. Cureus. 2023;15(11):e49366.

Shiammala PN, Duraimutharasan NKB, Vaseeharan B, Alothaim AS, Al-Malki ES, Snekaa B, et al. Exploring the artificial intelligence and machine learning models in the context of drug design difficulties and future potential for the pharmaceutical sectors. Methods. 2023;219:82-94.

Shirini D, Schwartz LH, Dercle L. Artificial intelligence for aging research in cancer drug development. Aging (Albany NY). 2023;15(22):12699-701.

Shou BL, Venkatesh K, Chen C, Ghidey R, Lee JH, Wang J, et al. Risk Factors for Nondiagnostic Imaging in a Real-World Deployment of Artificial Intelligence Diabetic Retinal Examinations in an Integrated Health care System: Maximizing Workflow Efficiency Through Predictive Dilation. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2023:19322968231201654.

Shukla VK, Heller GT, Hansen DF. Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy in the era of artificial intelligence. Structure. 2023;31(11):1360-74.

Shumway DO, Hartman HJ. Medical malpractice liability in large language model artificial intelligence: legal review and policy recommendations. J Osteopath Med. 2024.

Singam A. Revolutionizing Patient Care: A Comprehensive Review of Artificial Intelligence Applications in Anesthesia. Cureus. 2023;15(12):e49887.

Singh A, Paruthy SB, Belsariya V, Chandra JN, Singh SK, Manivasagam SS, et al. Revolutionizing Breast Healthcare: Harnessing the Role of Artificial Intelligence. Cureus. 2023;15(12):e50203.

Singh AV, Chandrasekar V, Paudel N, Laux P, Luch A, Gemmati D, et al. Integrative toxicogenomics: Advancing precision medicine and toxicology through artificial intelligence and OMICs technology. Biomed Pharmacother. 2023;163:114784.

Singh H, Nim DK, Randhawa AS, Ahluwalia S. Integrating clinical pharmacology and artificial intelligence: potential benefits, challenges, and role of clinical pharmacologists. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2024:1-11.

Singh K, Kaur N, Prabhu A. Combating COVID-19 Crisis using Artificial Intelligence (AI) Based Approach: Systematic Review. Curr Top Med Chem. 2024.

Singh S, Kumar R, Payra S, Singh SK. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Pharmacological Research: Bridging the Gap Between Data and Drug Discovery. Cureus. 2023;15(8):e44359.

Singhal M, Gupta L, Hirani K. A Comprehensive Analysis and Review of Artificial Intelligence in Anaesthesia. Cureus. 2023;15(9):e45038.

Singla N, Kundu R, Dey P. Artificial Intelligence: Exploring utility in detection and typing of fungus with futuristic application in fungal cytology. Cytopathology. 2024;35(2):226-34.

Siramshetty VB, Xu X, Shah P. Artificial Intelligence in ADME Property Prediction. Methods Mol Biol. 2024;2714:307-27.

Smith DA, Burton LM, Amanda S. Through a computer monitor darkly: artificial intelligence in absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion science. Xenobiotica. 2023:1-15.

Sorbello A, Haque SA, Hasan R, Jermyn R, Hussein A, Vega A, et al. Artificial Intelligence-Enabled Software Prototype to Inform Opioid Pharmacovigilance From Electronic Health Records: Development and Usability Study. Jmir ai. 2023;2.

Srivathsa AV, Sadashivappa NM, Hegde AK, Radha S, Mahesh AR, Ammunje DN, et al. A Review on Artificial Intelligence Approaches and Rational Approaches in Drug Discovery. Curr Pharm Des. 2023;29(15):1180-92.

Stafie CS, Sufaru IG, Ghiciuc CM, Stafie, II, Sufaru EC, Solomon SM, et al. Exploring the Intersection of Artificial Intelligence and Clinical Healthcare: A Multidisciplinary Review. Diagnostics (Basel). 2023;13(12).

Stoner MCD, Smith L, Ming K, Mancuso N, Patani H, Sukhija-Cohen A, et al. Results from a pilot study of an automated directly observed therapy intervention using artificial intelligence with conditional economic incentives among young adults with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2024.

Stonko DP, Hicks CW. Mature artificial intelligence- and machine learning-enabled medical tools impacting vascular surgical care: A scoping review of late-stage, US Food and Drug Administration-approved or cleared technologies relevant to vascular surgeons. Semin Vasc Surg. 2023;36(3):460-70.

Sufyan M, Shokat Z, Ashfaq UA. Artificial intelligence in cancer diagnosis and therapy: Current status and future perspective. Comput Biol Med. 2023;165:107356.

Syed W, Al-Rawi MBA. Community pharmacists awareness, perceptions, and opinions of artificial intelligence: A cross-sectional study in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Technol Health Care. 2024;32(1):481-93.

Terranova N, Renard D, Shahin MH, Menon S, Cao Y, Hop C, et al. Artificial Intelligence for Quantitative Modeling in Drug Discovery and Development: An Innovation and Quality Consortium Perspective on Use Cases and Best Practices. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2023.

Thakkar S, Slikker W, Jr., Yiannas F, Silva P, Blais B, Chng KR, et al. Artificial intelligence and real-world data for drug and food safety - A regulatory science perspective. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2023;140:105388.

Theodosiou AA, Read RC. Artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning: Potential resources for the infection clinician. J Infect. 2023;87(4):287-94.

Tiwari PC, Pal R, Chaudhary MJ, Nath R. Artificial intelligence revolutionizing drug development: Exploring opportunities and challenges. Drug Dev Res. 2023;84(8):1652-63.

Torres-Gaona G, Aledo-Serrano Á, García-Morales I, Toledano R, Valls J, Cosculluela B, et al. Artificial intelligence system, based on mjn-SERAS algorithm, for the early detection of seizures in patients with refractory focal epilepsy: A cross-sectional pilot study. Epilepsy Behav Rep. 2023;22:100600.

Tran NL, Kim H, Shin CH, Ko E, Oh SJ. Artificial intelligence-driven new drug discovery targeting serine/threonine kinase 33 for cancer treatment. Cancer Cell Int. 2023;23(1):321.

Tran TTV, Surya Wibowo A, Tayara H, Chong KT. Artificial Intelligence in Drug Toxicity Prediction: Recent Advances, Challenges, and Future Perspectives. J Chem Inf Model. 2023;63(9):2628-43.

Tran TTV, Tayara H, Chong KT. Recent Studies of Artificial Intelligence on In Silico Drug Absorption. J Chem Inf Model. 2023;63(20):6198-211.

Tran TTV, Tayara H, Chong KT. Artificial Intelligence in Drug Metabolism and Excretion Prediction: Recent Advances, Challenges, and Future Perspectives. Pharmaceutics. 2023;15(4).

Tsai HF, Podder S, Chen PY. Microsystem Advances through Integration with Artificial Intelligence. Micromachines (Basel). 2023;14(4).

Ugajin A. [Artificial Intelligence-Based Side Effects Questionnaire System for Outpatient of Cancer Drug Therapy-Realization of Reform of Work Styles for Healthcare Professionals and Improvement of Quality of Life for Patients]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2023;50(6):667-74.

Verma A, Awasthi A. Revolutionizing Drug Discovery: The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Curr Pharm Des. 2024.

Vidhya KS, Sultana A, M NK, Rangareddy H. Artificial Intelligence's Impact on Drug Discovery and Development From Bench to Bedside. Cureus. 2023;15(10):e47486.

Vilhekar RS, Rawekar A. Artificial Intelligence in Genetics. Cureus. 2024;16(1):e52035.

Visan AI, Negut I. Integrating Artificial Intelligence for Drug Discovery in the Context of Revolutionizing Drug Delivery. Life (Basel). 2024;14(2).

Vora LK, Gholap AD, Jetha K, Thakur RRS, Solanki HK, Chavda VP. Artificial Intelligence in Pharmaceutical Technology and Drug Delivery Design. Pharmaceutics. 2023;15(7).

Wan H, Yang X, Sang G, Ruan Z, Ling Z, Zhang M, et al. CDKN2A was a cuproptosis-related gene in regulating chemotherapy resistance by the MAGE-A family in breast cancer: based on artificial intelligence (AI)-constructed pan-cancer risk model. Aging (Albany NY). 2023;15(20):11244-67.

Wang C, Strasinger C, Weng YT, Zhao X. Use of Artificial Intelligence to Improve the Calculation of Percent Adhesion for Transdermal and Topical Delivery Systems. J Med Syst. 2023;48(1):4.

Wang J, Wen Y, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Jiang Y, Dai C, et al. An interpretable artificial intelligence framework for designing synthetic lethality-based anti-cancer combination therapies. J Adv Res. 2023.

Wang L, Song Y, Wang H, Zhang X, Wang M, He J, et al. Advances of Artificial Intelligence in Anti-Cancer Drug Design: A Review of the Past Decade. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2023;16(2).

Wang X, Hu X, Xu Y, Yong J, Li X, Zhang K, et al. A systematic review on diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal diseases by magnetically controlled capsule endoscopy and artificial intelligence. Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 2023;16:17562848231206991.

Wang X, Liu XQ. Potential and limitations of ChatGPT and generative artificial intelligence in medical safety education. World J Clin Cases. 2023;11(32):7935-9.

Wei D, Peslherbe GH, Selvaraj G, Wang Y. Advances in Drug Design and Development for Human Therapeutics Using Artificial Intelligence-II. Biomolecules. 2023;13(12).

Wei L, Xu M, Liu Z, Jiang C, Lin X, Hu Y, et al. Hit Identification Driven by Combining Artificial Intelligence and Computational Chemistry Methods: A PI5P4K-β Case Study. J Chem Inf Model. 2023;63(16):5341-55.

Wojtara M, Rana E, Rahman T, Khanna P, Singh H. Artificial intelligence in rare disease diagnosis and treatment. Clin Transl Sci. 2023;16(11):2106-11.

Wong F, de la Fuente-Nunez C, Collins JJ. Leveraging artificial intelligence in the fight against infectious diseases. Science. 2023;381(6654):164-70.

Wubineh BZ, Deriba FG, Woldeyohannis MM. Exploring the opportunities and challenges of implementing artificial intelligence in healthcare: A systematic literature review. Urol Oncol. 2023.

Xianyu Z, Correia C, Ung CY, Zhu S, Billadeau DD, Li H. The Rise of Hypothesis-Driven Artificial Intelligence in Oncology. Cancers (Basel). 2024;16(4).

Yang D, Yu Z, Zheng M, Yang W, Liu Z, Zhou J, et al. Artificial intelligence-accelerated high-throughput screening of antibiotic combinations on a microfluidic combinatorial droplet system. Lab Chip. 2023;23(18):3961-77.

Yang X, Wu Y, Xu S, Li H, Peng C, Cui X, et al. Targeting the inward rectifier potassium channel 5.1 in thyroid cancer: artificial intelligence-facilitated molecular docking for drug discovery. BMC Endocr Disord. 2023;23(1):113.

Yaung KN, Yeo JG, Kumar P, Wasser M, Chew M, Ravelli A, et al. Artificial intelligence and high-dimensional technologies in the theragnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Lancet Rheumatol. 2023;5(3):e151-e65.

Ye J. Patient Safety of Perioperative Medication Through the Lens of Digital Health and Artificial Intelligence. JMIR Perioper Med. 2023;6:e34453.

Yin J, You N, Li F, Lu M, Zeng S, Zhu F. State-of-the-art Application of Artificial Intelligence to Transporter-centered Functional and Pharmaceutical Research. Curr Drug Metab. 2023;24(3):162-74.

Yılmaz T, Ceyhan Ş, Akyön Ş H, Yılmaz TE. Enhancing Primary Care for Nursing Home Patients with an Artificial Intelligence-Aided Rational Drug Use Web Assistant. J Clin Med. 2023;12(20).

Young RR. Emerging Role of Artificial Intelligence and Big Data in Spine Care. Int J Spine Surg. 2023;17(S1):S3-s10.

Yu S, Kalinin AA, Paraskevopoulou MD, Maruggi M, Cheng J, Tang J, et al. Integrating inflammatory biomarker analysis and artificial-intelligence-enabled image-based profiling to identify drug targets for intestinal fibrosis. Cell Chem Biol. 2023;30(9):1169-82.e8.

Yuan S, Ajam H, Sinnah ZAB, Altalbawy FMA, Abdul Ameer SA, Husain A, et al. The roles of artificial intelligence techniques for increasing the prediction performance of important parameters and their optimization in membrane processes: A systematic review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2023;260:115066.

Zhang D, Fan B, Lv L, Li D, Yang H, Jiang P, et al. Research hotspots and trends of artificial intelligence in rheumatoid arthritis: A bibliometric and visualized study. Math Biosci Eng. 2023;20(12):20405-21.

Zhang J, Chen D, Xia Y, Huang YP, Lin X, Han X, et al. Artificial Intelligence Enhanced Molecular Simulations. J Chem Theory Comput. 2023;19(14):4338-50.

Zhang W, Li Y, Ren W, Liu B. Artificial intelligence technology in Alzheimer's disease research. Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2023;12(4):208-12.

Zhang X, Xie J, You X, Gong H. Risk factors and drug discovery for cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes mellitus using artificial intelligence interpretation and graph neural networks. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2023;14:1213711.

Zhang Y, Deng Z, Xu X, Feng Y, Junliang S. Application of Artificial Intelligence in Drug-Drug Interactions Prediction: A Review. J Chem Inf Model. 2023.

Zheng P, Zeng X, Wang X, Ding P. Editorial: Artificial intelligence and machine learning for drug discovery, design and repurposing: methods and applications. Front Pharmacol. 2023;14:1333747.

Zhou J, Dong J, Hou H, Huang L, Li J. High-throughput microfluidic systems accelerated by artificial intelligence for biomedical applications. Lab Chip. 2024;24(5):1307-26.

Zong N, Chowdhury S, Zhou S, Rajaganapathy S, Yu Y, Wang L, et al. Artificial Intelligence-based Efficacy Prediction of Phase 3 Clinical Trial for Repurposing Heart Failure Therapies. medRxiv. 2023.

Abadi SAH, Atbaei R, Forouhi M, Falaverjani HG, Moazamiyanfar R, Rezaei M, et al. Preventive and Therapeutic Approaches in Medical Departments During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-216.

Ahadiat S-A, Atighi J, Forouhi M, Mashatan N, Ghahremaniyeh Z, Radmanesh M, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Complications of COVID-19. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-113.

Ahadiat S-A, Barati R, Moghadam NS, Samami E, Ghiabi S, Alyari M, et al. Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Malignancies. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-122.

Ahadiat S-A, Falaverjani HG, Shabani M, Abadi SAH, Moazamiyanfar R, Rajabi SK, et al. The Role of Stem Cells in Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-136.

Ahadiat S-A, Ghazalgoo A, Abadi SAH, Falaverjani HG, Bagherianlemraski M, Namazifar F, et al. Role of Vitamin D in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-119.

Ahadiat S-A, Kamrani K, Fard AM, Bagherianlemraski M, Rahimpour E, Jamali M, et al. Role of Blood Groups in Risk, Severity, Prognosis, and Response to Treatment of the Diseases. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-130.

Ahadiat S-A, Shirazinia M, Shirazinia S, Garousi S, Mottahedi M, Jalali AB, et al. Role of Telemedicine in Management of Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-191.

Amini N, Azimzadeh M, Dosar MD, Fard AM, Habibzadeh N, Yahyazadehjasour S, et al. Role of Microbiome, Infection, and Inflammation in Autoimmune Diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-102.

Fard AM, Nikbakht T, Babaei N, Pouyamanesh M, Afzalian A, Kharazmkia A, et al. Role of medicinal plants in treatment of inflammatory diseases. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-139.

Farrokhi M, Khouzani SJ, Farrokhi M, Jalayeri H, Faranoush P, Babaei M, et al. Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning for Screening and Risk Assessment of Cancers. Kindle. 2024;4(1):1-140.

Farrokhi M, Moeini A, Taheri F, Farrokhi M, Khodashenas M, Babaei M, et al. AI-assisted Screening and Prevention Programs for Diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-209.

Farrokhi M, Moeini A, Taheri F, Farrokhi M, Mostafavi M, Ardakan AK, et al. Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Care: From Diagnosis to Prevention and Beyond. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-149.

Farrokhi M, Rigi A, Mangouri A, Fadaei M, Shabani E, Mashouf P, et al. Role of Antioxidants in Autoimmune Diseases. Kindle. 2021;1(1):1-107.

Farrokhi M, Shabani S, Rigi A, Seighalani HH, Pazhooha M, Bagheri S, et al. Academic Textbook: Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Pain. Kindle. 2021;1(1):1-123.

Farrokhi M, Taheri F, Farrokhi M, Moeini A, Tooyserkani SH, Shahali A, et al. Anti-Aging Strategies to Prevent Diseases: Promoting Longevity and Optimal Health. Kindle. 2024;4(1):1-194.

Farrokhi M, Taheri F, Karami E, Khorram R, Sarnaghy FJ, Mirbolook A, et al. Effects of Environmental Factors and Epigenetic on Health and the Development of Diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-186.

Farrokhi M, Taheri F, Khouzani PJ, Rahmani E, Tavakoli R, Fard AM, et al. Role of precision medicine and personalized medicine in the treatment of diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-164.

Farrokhi M, Taheri F, Moeini A, Farrokhi M, Alireza MZS, Farahmandsadr M, et al. Artificial Intelligence for Remote Patient Monitoring: Advancements, Applications, and Challenges. Kindle. 2024;4(1):1-261.

Farrokhi M, Taheri F, Moeini A, Farrokhi M, Rabiei S, Farahmandsadr M, et al. Sex and Gender Differences in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-168.

Farrokhi M, Vafaei S, Bidares M, Siami H, Rigi A, Hannaniyan M, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Manifestations of COVID-19. Kindle. 2021;1(1):1-170.

Ghalamkarpour N, Fard AM, Babazadeh A, Nikseresht H, Feyzmanesh A, Soltani R, et al. Role of Biomarkers in Risk, Diagnosis, Response to Treatment, and Prognosis of the Autoimmune Diseases. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-124.

Poudineh M, Poudineh S, Hosseini Z, Pouramini S, Fard SS, Fadavian H, et al. Risk Factors for the Development of Cancers. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-118.

Poudineh S, Poudineh M, Roohinezhad R, Khorram R, Fard AM, Barzegar F, et al. Role of Vitamins in Pathogenesis and Treatment of Cancers. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-110.

Rahmani E, Fard AM, Baghsheikhi H, Hosseini Z, Mashaollahi A, Atighi J, et al. Role of Selenium in Pathogenesis and Treatment of the Autoimmune Diseases. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-131.

Rahmani E, Rezaei M, Tavakoli R, Ghadirzadeh E, Sarnaghy FJ, Khorram R, et al. Role of Regenerative Medicine in the Treatment of Diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-184.

Rezaei M, Rahmani E, Khouzani SJ, Rahmannia M, Ghadirzadeh E, Bashghareh P, et al. Role of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-160.

Rezaei M, Saei S, Khouzani SJ, Rostami ME, Rahmannia M, Manzelat AMR, et al. Emerging Technologies in Medicine: Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Medical Automation. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-184.

Rezaei T, Khouzani PJ, Khouzani SJ, Fard AM, Rashidi S, Ghazalgoo A, et al. Integrating Artificial Intelligence into Telemedicine: Revolutionizing Healthcare Delivery. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-161.

Tabatabaei SOH, Moazamiyanfar R, Fard AM, Salemi MH, Masjedi MNK, Yazdani Y, et al. Academic Textbook: The Role of Melatonin in Pathogenesis and Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-126.

Taheri F, Farrokhi M, Fard AM, Rahmani E, Soltani R, Shamsedanesh S, et al. Role of Micronutrients and Nutrition in Prevention and Treatment of Cancers. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-102.

Taheri F, Rahmani E, Fard SS, Rezaei M, Ayati A, Farhoudian A, et al. Aging Process and Related Diseases. Kindle. 2023;3(1):1-117.

Talaie R, Fard SS, Forouhi M, Fard AM, Fard TM, Dadashzadehasl N, et al. Applications, Limitations, and Guidelines for the Use of Telemedicine in Medical Departments. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-118.

Yarmohammadi B, Rigi A, Sahebkar F, Ahadiat S-A, Gharei F, Heydarian P, et al. Guidelines for Providing Services in Medical Departments During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Kindle. 2022;2(1):1-193.

Artificial Intelligence for Drug Development, Personalized Prescriptions, and Adverse Event Prediction




How to Cite

Farrokhi, M., Taheri, F., Moeini, A., Farrokhi, M., Jafari Khouzani, P., Ghadirzadeh, E., Varmazyari, S., Ghaneiyan, M., Mohebbi, S., Mogharari, Z., Rezaei, V., Ghorbani, H., Ghayyem, H., Miri, S., Saeidi, S., Baniasad, K., Mirbolouk, M., Navaei, N., Saeidi, D., Rezaei, Z., Sabeghi, P., Emtiazi, N., & Garousi, B. (2024). Artificial Intelligence for Drug Development, Personalized Prescriptions, and Adverse Event Prediction. Kindle, 4(1), 1–180. Retrieved from



Academic Text Books